Generalizing results of researches of processes of thinking and reaction of people in various situations, David Makklelland and his colleagues developed model of the motivation focusing on requirements of the highest levels and united them in three categories: accessions, authorities and achievements.
The method of a carrot and stick or method of remuneration and punishment which is applied and now was the very first reception of motivation to work. The people who are subordinates in the modern organizations are usually much more formed and provided, than in the past and their motives of work are more difficult for influence.
The head needs to watch carefully the subordinates to solve, what active requirements move them. As over time these requirements change, it is impossible to count that the motivation which was productive once, will be effective all the time.
Hierarchical levels of requirements are not discrete steps i.e. in order that the following, higher level started influencing behavior of the person, it is not obligatory to satisfy requirement of lower level completely. Though at present one of requirements can dominate, activity of the person thus is stimulated not only it. Besides, exceptions can take place: for some people, the hierarchy of requirements can have other structure (other priorities of requirements).
Working context — one more factor defining motivation. We will not be able correctly to treat action of individuals if we consider them out of the current and historical contexts, the attitudes towards them and their interpretation by people. It is lawful to allocate the following factors:
Requirements of interrelations include the relations of the person with other individuals and groups — the Person satisfies with family members, colleagues, chiefs, subordinates, etc. these requirements when he shares the thoughts and feelings with other people, and this process has to be mutual.
K. Alderfer first of all was interested in a problem of allocation of primary needs of the person, i.e. natural requirements of a live organism. The satisfaction is connected with internal state of the individual who received to what aspired.
Complexity of motivation through requirements is that characters of people — this connection of the most various lines and that there is a huge number of various specific human wants, those purposes which on understanding of each person lead to satisfaction of his requirements, and also is more whole than behavior types at achievement of these.
As with development of the person as persons extend his potential opportunities, the requirement of self-updating can be never completely satisfied. Therefore also process of motivation of the person through requirements is infinite.
Also process of transformation of needs of the person to behavior is not less individual. For example, the individual with high requirement of responsibility or advance will satisfy it, having achieved transfer to other department. And someone will make the decision to replace a kind of activity.